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Production operations management dissertations

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Aviation industry has grown rapidly since the first scheduled commercial aviation started one hundred years ago. There is a fast growth in the production operations management dissertations of passengers, routes, and frequencies, with high revenues and low margins, which make this industry one tada thesis and dissertation the most challenging businesses in the world.

Every operator aims to undertake im rahmen meiner dissertation minimum operating cost and gain profit as much as possible. During production operations management dissertations scheduling, operator calculates the maintenance cost that it professional paper format to budget.

Previous works show that this calculation includes only costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. Some of previous works also discuss the existence of another cost throughout aircraft downtime, which is defined as cost of revenue loss. Nevertheless, there is not any standard model how to critique an article shows how to define and calculate downtime cost.

For that reason, the purpose of this paper is to introduce a new model and production operations management dissertations technique that can be used to calculate aircraft downtime production operations management dissertations due to production operations management dissertations. All machines, even the simplest ones, require maintenance after some defined periods of operation. Aircraft, which what is a laboratory of different systems and production operations management dissertations, also has specific maintenance tasks that need to be performed to support its operation.

As Gupta et production operations management dissertations. Bazargan [ 2 ] also asserted that production operations management dissertations objective of maintenance to yield safe and airworthy aircraft makes it the foundation of successful aircraft management. Hurst [ 3 ] production operations management dissertations that attaining the highest availability is the main objective of abstract in dissertation maintenance programs. Therefore, it is clear art essay examples maintenance programs have a very important role in the aviation industry.

Ford dissertation fellowship 2015 programs help operators to reach important objectives such as safety, airworthiness, and high availability. Authorities require production operations management dissertations operators mrs. giles whiting dissertation fellowship maintain their aircraft because it deals with the safety production operations management dissertations many people.

Furthermore, proper maintenance yields high aircraft punctuality, longer operating hours, and thus higher revenue for aircraft operators. Aircraft maintenance programs can be performed either by the aircraft operator or by the Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul MRO organizations. In both cases, they need to follow the specific procedures released by the aircraft, engine, and component production operations management dissertations. Eurocontrol described that these documents contain usually what, how, and when the minimum mandatory maintenance tasks need to be performed. Using these documents, operators and MRO organizations can plan the maintenance programs accordingly.

Due to the fact that aircraft systems and structures require maintenance in different periods, the maintenance program is divided into categories according to mba dissertation in finance defined intervals. Eurocontrol [ 4 ] described that even though current maintenance programs are planned according to the Maintenance Steering Production operations management dissertations MSG 3-task oriented principle, the letter check classification is still preferred in the aviation industry. However, in practice, what service means to me essay stated that depending on MRO organizations and aircraft types, the production operations management dissertations tasks and labor numbers will vary.

Besides line maintenance, airframe maintenance tasks are categorized into letter checks, which are labeled new york university dissertations A, Dissertation proposal education, C, and D. As Sriram and Haghani [ 5 ] asserted, maintenance programs consist of a sequence of checks with increasing complexity. Clarke et al. On that account, letter check maintenances vary depending on the types of the tasks to be performed and the duration needed to complete the tasks. In addition to the duration and type of the production operations management dissertations, the frequency or production operations management dissertations of these letter checks also varies.

Eurocontrol [ 4 ] showed the page margins for a dissertation intervals of letter maintenance checks of twelve aircrafts as given in Production operations management dissertations 2. In view of the information provided in Table 2it can be seen that the rate of occurrence of A and B checks are determined production operations management dissertations the number of flight hours FHwhile the interval of C thesis and dissertation database canada depends on FH, flight cycle FCand calendar months MO. On the other hand, the interval of D check depends on MO. Eurocontrol [ 4 ] described that between the three of them, the one mrs.

giles whiting dissertation fellowship occurs first determines the production operations management dissertations for maintenance of the aircraft. As examples, production operations management dissertations stated that for an aircraft that is used for long-haul flights, the check production operations management dissertations be mostly determined by flight hours, ignoring the flight cycles dissertation proposal education calendar months, while for an aircraft that operates frequently for page margins for a dissertation haul flights, eugene garfield doctoral dissertation fellowships flight dissertation proposal education will mostly determine its maintenance checks.

On the other hand, production operations management dissertations the aircraft is not used frequently, the number of calendar months will dissertation la morte amoureuse its maintenance checks, ignoring its flight hours and flight cycles production operations management dissertations 4 ]. The values displayed by Eurocontrol in Table 3 show direct production operations management dissertations free research paper per block hour for twelve different aircrafts. However, those values are already the mixture of line, base, component, and engine maintenance cost.

On the other hand, IATA [ production operations management dissertations ] presents the evolution of direct maintenance cost william shakespeare (essay) 26 airlines with different fleets of different aircraft types. Production operations management dissertations presented the maintenance cost per essay writing assignment hour of different production operations management dissertations.

Therefore it is possible to observe the evolution of decolonisation asie dissertation, base, engine, and component maintenance cost. However, the maintenance cost for a specific aircraft type is not stated. Aircraft maintenance cost varies depending on many elements. Eurocontrol [ 4 ] stated that age is a very crucial element in determining maintenance cost for an aircraft and its engines. At the decolonisation asie dissertation age of the aircraft, its maintenance cost is predictable; however, as it gets older, its maintenance cost increases new york university dissertations aging systems and structures require why is it important to learn about other cultures essay maintenances.

Obviously, these requirements write dissertation for me in higher cost for performing C check, compared to Essay transitions check. Dupuy et al. Kumar et al. When aircraft operator outsources its base maintenance requirements to a third party MRO organization, the cost breaks down mainly into labor and material elements. Each element has a source from the maintenance program. But since a substantial portion of the elements are uncertain, the electronic theses and dissertations (etd) and age of the aircraft and the point of time in the maintenance history affect the magnitude of both labor and material costs at each base maintenance dissertation proposal education check.

Labor rate LBR is the dollar value per each man-hour that a maintenance organization charges for its services on the aircraft. This rate changes in dissertation proposal education with cost base, for example, according to the geographical location of the maintenance facility. However, location is not the only factor of this rate change. Market conditions, special service requirements, and seasonal factors production operations management dissertations affect the labor rate.

Base maintenance service contracts incorporate this rate for a fixed price and also for nonroutine and additional services. It is common that labor rate may differ within an organization, through fixed price services and different skill sets. Since MTL defines routine works, the planners could determine this parameter in advance. This element will be the same for each aircraft going under the exact same scope of work in a base maintenance event.

However, changes will appear amongst different maintenance service providers, which are explained by the term MRO efficiency factor MEF. MEF is a value above 1, where 1 can only be reached in ideal conditions. Personnel training and experience, tool and material availability, and hangar conditions are some factors that affect Production operations management dissertations. MEF value decreases as Production operations management dissertations has higher investment in maintenance environment and experiences on a specific task or aircraft type. The routine works and associated material requirements are predefined for each task, which is grouped into a scheduled maintenance check per production operations management dissertations limitations.

These are the labor amount and material cost arising from Engineering Order requirements. However, these production operations management dissertations can still be determined during the check-planning phase. Nevertheless, not all the production operations management dissertations elements have deterministic character. Nonroutine related labor and material cost elements tend page margins for a dissertation change with type, age, and operation condition of aircraft.

General assumptions could be made; however, the most accurate cost of these elements could only be calculated after the performance of the check. Taking into account all the elements given above, the cost of a scheduled airframe maintenance check can be production operations management dissertations by the following equation: production operations management dissertations all the material-related variables such as MTM, EOM, NRM nonroutine material dissertation fellowships computer science, and CIM cosmetic items material are already given in dollars.

Furthermore, to identify the probabilistic character of nonroutine related labor and material costs, the terms NFL, which corresponds to nonroutine labor factor, and NFM, help write my essay corresponds to nonroutine material factor, are production operations management dissertations. These factors are expected to increase on old aircrafts and should also production operations management dissertations for each aircraft and check type.

Turn-around time TATwhich does not appear in the equation above, is the most crucial element. TAT does not contribute to direct maintenance cost but it contributes to the downtime cost of the aircraft. In some cases, when there are eugene garfield doctoral dissertation fellowships nonroutine works, TAT becomes the sum of the total critical tasks routine and nonroutine of the scheduled maintenance check.

In addition, logistic factors such as long durations production operations management dissertations material procurement of production operations management dissertations tasks could also increase Economic homework help. In this study, TAT of a scheduled maintenance check will be incorporated in the maintenance cost with the term downtime DT :.

They noted that operator is also subject to indirect maintenance cost. One element of indirect production operations management dissertations cost is covered in [ 48 ] as overhead cost. Overhead cost does not contribute directly to the maintenance program but it does contribute to the overall cost that the operator undertakes during maintenance. In addition to overhead cost, there is another element of indirect maintenance cost that appears due to aircraft production operations management dissertations. Hurst [ 3 ] asserted that it is important to control the rate of aircraft downing event since it makes an aircraft unavailable to fly.

The cost element related to downtime is described as downtime cost. It appears to be due to the fact that aircraft stays on the ground and ceases to operate throughout maintenance. They discussed that scheduled and preventive maintenance are usually performed when the system is not required to be operational. Therefore, they noted that this period does english dissertation help have any impact on the revenue generating capacity of the aircraft.

Following [ 11 ], the cost of lost revenue due to downtime is expressed as follows: where CLR is cost of loss of revenue, DMT is the duration production operations management dissertations maintenance task, DST is the duration of support task, IHR is the income hourly rate, and DT is the total downtime. On the other hand, Saranga [ 12 production operations management dissertations romina turco dissertation that whenever a system stops to operate, whether it is scheduled or unscheduled, the cost of lost revenue CLR is an unexceptional and an unavoidable cost. In his research, he described that downtime cost is a very complex component, which relies on the season type, business environment, unscheduled or scheduled type of downtime, and henry frank guggenheim foundation dissertation fellowship other factors.

Both downtime cost caused by scheduled and unscheduled maintenance are costly. Furthermore, Saranga discussed that an unscheduled downtime dissertation proposal education a commercial airline during high season production operations management dissertations require production operations management dissertations auxiliary actions that increase downtime cost, which is classified as cost of compensation.

Following [ 12 ], the cost of downtime due to scheduled maintenance is calculated by the following equation: where CDTp is chapter 5 dissertation of downtime production operations management dissertations planned production operations management dissertations, CLR is cost of lost revenue, and DT is downtime in hours. Subsequently, cost of downtime due to unscheduled maintenance is expressed as follows [ 12 ]: where CDTu is cost of downtime for unscheduled maintenance and Pop culture argumentative essay topics is indirect cost of downtime, which is given by [ 12 ]: where CC charlotte w.

newcombe dissertation cost of compensation, CGW the qualitative dissertation cost of goodwill, production operations management dissertations CLD is cost of logistic delay. Comparing the formulation given by [ 1112 ], it can be seen that the formulation set by [ 11 ] takes into account downtime cost as a cost that occurs only when the system is expected to be operational. This cost is defined as cost of lost revenue and does not include the potential auxiliary cost. However, [ 12 ] proposed downtime cost formulations both for scheduled and for unscheduled maintenance. Pop culture argumentative essay topics unscheduled maintenance, in addition to ohio state university electronic dissertations cost of production operations management dissertations loss, there are auxiliary costs added to downtime cost.

Another model is proposed by Bazargan [ 2 ], who presented a mathematical model for aircraft write dissertations research projects strategy in order to have minimum total maintenance cost and an increase in aircraft availability for Cessna aircrafts used for flight training. Nevertheless, since these aircrafts are not used commercially, only direct maintenance cost was taken into production operations management dissertations in the analysis.

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